Hello, We are group C from S209. Our group consist of Steffany Yen, Aneesha, Evangeline Wong and Cassandra Chai. We are here to tell you on our research on the reduction and prevention of Ovarian Cancer.

We choose this topic as it is not looked into as much as other types of cancers and people are not very aware of it although it is the 5th most common Cancer in women in Singapore. There are at least 280 cases diagnosed yearly based on the Singapore Cancer Research Studies that we found online.
We would want to find out more about ovarian cancer, such as the risks, factors, symptoms etc.  as it is quite common in females of Singapore and only not raise awareness about it, but also to know if it can be prevented or reduced in terms of risk.


To broaden our further with further knowledge, we decided to touch a bit on Breast Cancer, the number 1 cancer in Women in Singapore. We would also like to learn more about Breast Cancer as it is also a top women cancer like Ovarian Cancer.


1. Hard Copy Resources

We went to National Libraries in Singapore to look for the most recent medical books based on our research topic and write an edited summary of what information we have taken out from it which is related to our research topic. Not only can we seek information from medical books, we can also look for books that are written by people who had once contacted the Ovarian Cancer, and we can find out how her lifestyle was, to what lead her to have Ovarian Cancer hence we can also include the information in our report and summary.


2.2 Online Resources

We can use reliable search engines such as Wikipedia and Google to find out more on our research topic other than the hard copy resources. Online resources such as doctor's websites, information websites, scientist websites that are related to our research topic might help us to know more and add to our report/summary. We have to make sure that these resources are reliable by comparing them to all online resources we have found and in the process, eliminating the fake ones.


2.2.1 Medical Archives

Under online resources, we went into online Medical Archives and documents in search of the information we need. Such archives are written by doctors and they are quite available on the internet. We would go to different archives and compare the similarities before writing on our report so as to have consistant and reliable information.

2.2.2 Blogs and Websites

Under online resources, we went into blogs and websites created by patients that had once suffer from Ovarian Cancer and how they are recovering from it and how is their life. Not only that, we can also summarize the thoughts and information that we collect from such various blogs and websites.

Women with a strong family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer (two or more first-degree relatives and/or a relative with cancer before menopause) are a high-risk group who may carry a mutation of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. These women have a risk of ovarian malignancy of up to 50%. 10% of Ovarian Cancers are truly related to heredity; the vast majority (90%) of Ovarian Cancers happen because of random mutations, otherwise known as sporadic mutations.

The book also states that Fertility drug intake was accused of contributing to the risk of getting Ovarian Cancer, but there is no definite evidence to prove it. Patients should avoid refined sugar and white flour during cancer treatment, as it causes a relapse to cancer. As the first book states, women can take cancer-prevention pills in their daily diet, it can only prevent and reduce risk, but the ovarian cancer might still occur. You can reduce the risk of getting the cancer redusing the consumption of red meat & alcohol.To reduce the risk of cancer we should also have regular intake of foods such as brussels sprouts, cabbage, and cauliflower can also cut down the risk of cancer as they are contain a large amount of sulforaphane. 

 To attain a diet that helps reduce the risk of Ovarian Cancer, it is advised to reduce the amount of red meat consumed and the amount of alcohol. Its best to have only a maximum of 1 glass of alcohol per day (for women). Tea also helps to protect against cancer because of the antioxidants it contains, not to only that, women should also eat more fruits and vegetable as antioxidant beta-carotene are found in them and they reduce the risk of cancer. By getting these nutrients: Folate, Selenium, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Omega 3 from food also helps to reduce the risk of cancer, but high dosage of these supplements does not really seem to help. It was also said that soy may be able to help reduce the risk but it is not really tested and researched in depth.

Taking oral contraceptives or giving birth and breast feeding for just five years can cut ovarian cancer risk for the next 10 years by roughly 30 percent.

We also managed to find out the common stage at which when Ovarian Cancer is found and other complications that were inflicted when a women is diagnosed with it. 
Common symptoms of Ovarian Cancer includes:
1) Bloating
2) Weight Gain/Loss
3) Abdominal Pain
4) Tiredness
5) Nausea
6) Loss of appetite
Many of those who contacted this diseases only knew them at a later stage - Stage 3 or Stage 4. Most of them had their ovaries removed and they undergo chemotherapy to help recover. Occasionally some of them had their second cancer after having Ovarian Cancer.

To broaden our research topic, we also touched on breast cancer. Coincidentally, the thought of breast cancer is also the mutation BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. A child only needs to inherit one copy of the mutated gene to have an increased cancer risk. Children who have a parent with the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have a 50 percent chance of inheriting the mutation. But for breast cancer, it can be prevented at a earlier stage then ovarian cancer as women can not only go for mammograms, they can also perform breast self-examination everyday on their own, not only is it easy, it helps save lives when it is detected early.


Breast Self Exams: 

And the benefits of discovering it at a earlier stage are that you might be able to be cured from it completely. Not only that, we also found the high risk age group for Breast Cancer which are, women aged above 60 and men aged above 50.

We also managed to find out the common stage at which when Ovarian Cancer is found and other complications that were inflicted when a women is diagnosed with it. 

Credits: Google Images

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